shaun: I didn't anticipate problems, I just didn't think it worked in that way - but I'm completely happy to be told otherwise :) Don't be surprised that curl lets you do weird and wonderful things, lots of tools are like that and it allows you to use them in ways that the original author hadn't thought of. And if you feed them rubbish, well they will probably response with rubbish :) This is a common approach with the unix type apps, kind of "use at your own peril"!