As someone who is swapping over too oop from procedural I find these tutorials really helpful. As for the negative comments regarding SQL and SQL injections etc. my real aim at present is to adopt the oop format. This tutorial does well to explain the basics. If these examples were to cover 'all' the intricacies of the PHP language at this level, the code (and descriptions) would become overbloated and possibly useless for a newbie to follow logically. I think at this level anyone who finds this code useful is highly unlikely to be writing realworld critical apps from this point. Perhaps a foot note about omissions and vulnerabilities may not go a miss with links to relevant tutorials. But personally I can't criticize this helpful tutorial. Thanks Lorna :)