It is pretty common when using OAuth for there to be a relationship between the provider and consumer; as a consumer you usually register with the provider to obtain a consumer key and consumer secret. Google's APIs however do not require this. It is recommended that you register your application, however it is also possible to use OAuth without registering.
To make this work, when you sign your OAuth request Google will accept some default values for consumer key and secret - see their documentation on signing oauth requests. To do this, set both consumer key and secret to the value "anonymous", and proceed as you normally would. The only difference so far as I can see is that the user will be shown a more cautious message when they are prompted to grant access to your application. Personally I think this is a great approach, particularly when prototyping ideas. Registering the applications though is simple and quick so I'd recommend registering for most applications once they get beyond concept stage.